Die Hard. Some people say Jaws changed the way movies were made. Others say Star Wars. But it can be argued that Die Hard had just as much influence on movies as both of those films, maybe not so much culturally, but definitely in how studios approached the tent pole film.
by Carson Reeves
The irony, of course, is that those same studios used Die Hard as their action template without realizing what made it great.
Yeah, it has splosions.
Yeah, Bruce Willis was perfect casting.
Yeah, the action scenes were great. But the reason Die Hard is so awesome is because of its script.
So I decided to go back to the granddaddy of contained (action) thrillers and see if I couldn’t learn a few things from it. It didn’t take long. Die Hard is chock full of screenwriting tips if you pay attention, and I’m happy to highlight ten of them for you here.
Be creative with your ticking bomb
Every action movie should have a ticking time bomb. But that doesn’t mean incorporating one of those cheap digital timers with a big flashing “120 minutes” on it. Instead – just like every element in your screenplay – you should look for a fresh alternative.
Here, the ticking time bomb is the seven locks to the safe the computer expert is hacking. It’s a clever countdown device we’ve never quite seen before (or since) and that’s why it works so well.
Smart incorporation of exposition
Most action writers think that the blood-soaked testosterone-fueled action genre gives them license to unload exposition onto the page like a garbage truck does garbage. “The audience won’t care,” they argue. “They just want to see explosions.” Errrr…wrong! Bad exposition eliminates suspension of disbelief, which in turn makes all those “explosion” scenes less exciting.
So don’t fall into this trap.
Be smooth in the way you unveil exposition. Take the scene in Die Hard where McClane is in the limo. We have to get some key exposition out about John’s on-the-rocks marriage before we get to the building.
A lazy writer might’ve had an unprovoked McClane start rambling on about his broken marriage. Instead, the Die Hard writers make McClane resistant, practically “forced” into giving up details to his overly nosey limo driver.
In fact, the limo driver is revealing (with his guesses) almost as much about McClane’s marriage as McClane is. “You mean you thought she wouldn’t make it out here and she’d come crawling on back, so why bother to pack?.” “Like I said Argyle, you’re fast.”
It’s little details like this that elevate an action script.
Ahhh, the snappy action one-liner. An 80s film staple. But no film has ever approached Die Hard in this category.
In fact, 95% of one-liners you hear in action movies these days are groan-worthy. So how does Die Hard still hold up? Simple. McClane’s one-liners stem from his situation, NOT from a writer wanting to add a funny line.
When you watch Die Hard and hear McClane say, “Yippee-ki-yay, motherfucker,” you genuinely get the sense that he’s trying to add levity to the situation. He’s using humor to deflect the seriousness of his predicament. In other words, he’s not a mouthpiece for a clever line thought up by a writer, which is what every single one of these one-liners has been since Die Hard came out (please see The Expendables for numerous examples).
The Bad Guy is a worthy adversary
Hans is one of the greatest bad guys of all time. How can we learn from him to make our own bad guys memorable?
The key to Hans working is that he’s a worthy adversary to John McClane. He isn’t some paint-by-the-numbers thug.
Die Hard is one of the few action films I can remember where they made the villain as smart as the hero. Not just on paper. But you actually SEE IT. We see the FBI cutting the last lock to the safe, the only lock Hans didn’t have access to – all part of his plan. We see Hans pretending to be a hostage when he runs into McClane. By doing this, the audience has real doubts about whether our hero can outsmart this guy, which in turn pulls us in even more.
Sometimes the story dictates we do things we don’t want to do
Ideally, especially in an action movie, you’d want to introduce your main character with some sort of action scene that gives us insight into who they are. Unfortunately, the direction of the story may not afford you this opportunity.
In Die Hard, a lot of the key things we learn about McClane early on are through dialogue. On the plane with the other passenger, in the limo with Argyle, on his conversation with his wife when he gets there. Sure, it would have been nicer if we could’ve *shown* these things instead of been *told* about them. But the situation is what it is.
You need to get your main character to the building and you need the audience to know some things before he gets there. If a similar setup is required in your movie, embrace it and do the best you can with the situation.
Forced to tell something through dialogue?
Make it as seamless and interesting as you possibly can and move on.
Don’t forget to show what your hero is fighting for
In 110 pages of story, it’s easy to forget what your hero is fighting for. In this case, McClane is trying to save his wife. If, then, we don’t see his wife for sixty minutes, we start to forget what his ultimate motivation is.
In Die Hard, around the mid-point, Holly goes to Hans and asks him if she can get a couch for her pregnant friend and bathroom breaks for the rest of the hostages.
It’s a small and seemingly insignificant scene, but it reminds us and reignites our passion for why John McClane must succeed.
One of the best scenes you can write
One might argue that the most memorable scene in Die Hard is when Hans pretends to be a hostage. Part of the reason we love this scene so much is because it’s such a clever move by our villain.
But this is actually a setup for a scene that works almost every time you use it in a screenplay:
We the audience know something that our main character doesn’t – that he’s in danger – and there’s nothing we can do to help him. The tension this creates in a scene – the helplessness we feel – works on an audience almost every time, so if you have the opportunity to use it, do so. Just make sure we like your hero.
Obviously, if we don’t, we won’t be too worried when he’s seconds away from getting a bullet in the chest.
Character goals up the wazoo
There are numerous character goals in Die Hard driving the story. That’s why, even though this is just a contained action film, it feels a lot more complicated and elaborate.
McClane is trying to save his wife. McClane is trying to contact the police. Hans is trying to open the safe. Hans is trying to kill McClane. Hans is trying to find the detonators. The reporter’s trying to get the story. The FBI is trying to stop the terrorists. Al is trying to help McClane get out alive. Everybody’s got something to do in this movie and whenever they achieve what they’re trying to do, the writers give them something new to do.
If too many characters run out of pressing things to do in an action script, put a fork in your screenplay, cause it’s done.
Things get worse for our hero as the script goes on
In every action script, you want it to get tougher on your hero the closer he gets to the finish line. McClane’s feet are heavily cut, making it difficult for him to walk. Hans figures out that Holly is John’s wife and takes her hostage, making it more difficult to save her.
In the final confrontation, McClane’s only got two bullets left, making his escape unlikely. Keep stacking the odds against your hero as he gets closer to achieving his goal.
Don’t push your luck
I’ve been slurping the Die Hard kool-aid all article. In parting, I have to take one shot at the film. There’s a famous line in a Kenny Rogers song that goes, “Know when to fold’em.” At a certain point, you’ve gotten everything you’ve needed out of your screenplay. When that happens, it’s time to say “The End.”
In Die Hard, there’s a really cheesy forced moment in the final scene where Terrorist #1 bursts out of the building and Sergeant Al shoots him.
It was one beat too many and almost ruined an extremely satisfying ending. You always want to leave your audience wanting more. Resist that “one last unnecessary moment” and type “The End” instead.
And that’s that. Now before I leave, I want to pose a question to you guys, cause the truth is, I’m not sure what the answer is. Die Hard has one of the most cliché moments in all of action films in its finale. Bruce Willis points a gun at our villain who’s pointing a gun at our damsel in distress.
Could you ask for a more obvious final scenario? And yet, I was riveted. I was terrified for Holly and I was scared that Willis wouldn’t be able to save her. Outside of the obvious, “We liked the characters,” can you explain why this moment, despite being the very definition of cliché, still worked?
Karel Segers wrote his first produced screenplay at age 17. Today he is a story analyst with experience in acquisition, development and production. He has trained students worldwide, and worked with half a dozen Academy Award nominees. Karel speaks more European languages than you have fingers on your left hand, which he is still trying to find a use for in his hometown of Sydney, Australia. The languages, not the fingers.
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5 thoughts on “The Script Genius Of Die Hard”
cliche done well is a troupe.
we love troupes. as the viewer we expect to see them, if not the story seems inaccessible. we can repackage them and lead to them in different ways – but they must be there.
your observations are spot on as to why the script is brilliant.
how many drafts do you think it took?
how many drafts do writers reading this blog write before saying “it’s ready to shoot.”
i get a feeling that the mad rush to produce blockbusters by so many studios is ruining the refinement process – the rewrites.
i could be wrong – but that’s what i feel.
When Sergeant Al shoots the terrorist in the final scene and saves McClane it completes Al’s arc and I actually find it touching, maybe a little forced, but definitely not cheesy.
“I shot a kid. He was 13 years old. Ohhh, it was dark, I couldn’t see him. He had a ray gun, looked real enough. You know, when you’re a rookie, they can teach you everything about bein’ a cop except how to live with a mistake. Anyway, I just couldn’t bring myself to draw my gun on anybody again.”
Sure, and then the big ending moment of his character arc is that he overcomes his fears and learns to kill again. Very american.
Wow, great analysis Carson!
I am actually always slightly shocked, at how good this film is, whenever I re-watch it.
Not just the script (which you’ve detailed brilliantly) but the filmmaking/directing/casting/acting/production design/editing/sound design/music…
De Souza (writer of DIE HARD) gave a great talk at film school, and pointed out that – in many action films – the Villain is the protagonist.
In this case, Hans has a plan he’s executing and McLane is sucked into that, not of his own volition… He is constantly reacting, not `acting’ (the Villain – Hans, etc – is `driving the plot’, as such).
It’s interesting how closely this plot sticks to David Siegel’s 9-Act plot structure
Act 0: Someone Toils Late into the Night. (e.g. Say, a villain plans a crime)
Act 1: Start with an image (metaphor for the whole story).
Act 2: Something bad happens.
Act 3: Meet the Hero (and the Opposition).
Act 4: Commitment.
Act 5: Go for the wrong goal.
Act 6: The reversal.
Act 7: Go for the new goal.
Act 8: Wrap it up.
Also, interesting that DIE HARD is an adaptation of a 1979 novel, `Nothing Lasts Forever’ by Thorp…
I’d love to see an analysis, of what got cut/changed, and why…
Side thought: also – clever to set a story (and: film) almost-entirely inside one location (the Nakatomi Bldg). Seems: inexpensive.
Anyway, great article/analysis, thanks for this.
High ROI Film/Story/Screenplay Consultant
The perfect film structurally. We studied the script for my screenwriting class at Vancouver Film School.